September 1688

For background information about the diaries and their transcribers see Introduction


September 1

Bellingham entry

September ye 1st. A very fayr day. In ye morning I walkd to Walton Hall, and in ye afternoon I went with Mr. Houghton and ye Springhams [see 27 August 1688 entry] to ye boathouse to meete Mr. Fleetwoods [Edward and Thomas?].

Rawstorne entry

i at Preston & at prayers


September 2

Bellingham entry

Ye 2d. A fayr day. Ye vicar preached and administered the H: Eu: In ye evening we walkd to Enam [Avenham].

Rawstorne entry

2 at Preston Church heard the Vicar 2 and received the Sacraemt:


September 3

Bellingham entry

Ye 3d. A fayr day, but much raine att night. L. C. J. Wright and judge Jenner came here from Lancaster assize. I was with Mr. Fleetwood and others att Rigby’s, &c.

Rawstorne entry

3 at Preston & at prayers & at Mary Rigbyes [hostelry frequently visited by the diarists; location not identified]

Comment

There is a biography of Lord Chief Justice Sir Robert Wright in The History of Parliament that brings out well the poor quality and venality of judges in the age of Judge Jeffreys and the Bloody Assizes. For example, one source describes Wright as ‘… so poor a lawyer that he could not give an opinion on a written case, but used to bring such cases as came to him to his friend, Mr [Francis] North, [who] wrote the opinion on a paper, and the lawyer copied and signed under the case as if it had been his own’. His career ended with him facing trial for high treason but he cheated justice by dying of gaol fever in Newgate before he could be brought to court. [1] The History of Parliament also has a biography of Judge Sir Thomas Jenner revealing that shortly after this visit to Preston he attempted to flee the country with James II but was captured and held at the Tower of London. [2]

[1] ‘Wright, Robert (c.1634-89), of Wiggenhall St. German, Norf. | History of Parliament Online’, accessed 18 January 2017, http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1660-1690/member/wright-robert-1634-89.
[2] ‘Jenner, Sir Thomas (c.1638-1707), of Petersham, Surr. | History of Parliament Online’, accessed 18 January 2017, http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1660-1690/member/jenner-sir-thomas-1638-1707.

September 4

Bellingham entry

Ye 4th. A fayr day. We waited on the mayor to the judges. I din’d att Mr. Hodgkinsons with young Parker of Browsam. There came in Mr. Chetham and Weddall, both lawyer[s], and very pleasant, free men [neither identified].

Rawstorne entry

4 at Preston & waited on the judges Ld Chief Justice Wright and Jenner, & at prayers after. & dyned with Mr HodgKinson was at Will AdKinsons wth him & lawyer Cheetham & others. Mr Parker & [Wedall]


September 5

Bellingham entry

Ye 5th. A rainy day. We bowld and din’d att ye marsh, and att night I gave my cousen Patten [Thomas Patten or his brother William] his welcome home, att Rigby’s [hostelry, location unknown]. Betty [daughter of Bellingham’s  sister, Anne Bickerton]was very ill.

Rawstorne entry

5 at Preston & at prayers & at Swansey’s at Bowles, dyned there & was at Mary Rigbyes for 3 onely


September 6

Bellingham entry

Ye 6th. Some raine. We din’d att my cousen Johnson‘s on a pasty of venison, and att night were handsomely treated att my cousen Pattens att a bowl of Punch. There was with us Sr. Tho. Stanley, Coll Hodgkinson, Winkly, Lemmon, Chaddock, Kellett, Cobb, and ye [Spr]inghams.

Rawstorne entry

6 at Preston & at prayers, dyned at Mr Johnsons, was at Bowling green [location unknown] and supp’d at Mr Will Patten‘s

Comment

Cobb makes only one other appearance in the diaries. A Paul Cobb of Bernards Inn and his four sons appear as in-burgesses on the 1682 guild rolls. [1]

[1] W. A. Abram, The Rolls of Burgesses at the Guilds Merchant of the Borough of Preston, Co. of Lancaster, 1397-1682 (Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1884), 164, https://archive.org/details/rollsburgessesa00langoog.

September 7

Bellingham entry

Ye 7th. A wett day. I received some Ortolans [small bird, member of the bunting family, long a culinary delicacy] from cousen Frowde, and att night I treated all my cousens Johnsons, Pattens, and Springhams.

Rawstorne entry

7 at Preston & at prayers & ‘ith evening at Margret Miltons [Mittons, hostelry, location unknown] & at Mitre wth Mr Livesay of Northamptonshire Mr Livesey of Livesey Capt Clayton Mr HodgKinson Mr Winckley Mr Langton & Mr. Tho: Greenfield.


September 8

Bellingham entry

Ye 8th. A wett day. This evening cousens Springham treated Mr. Fleetwood and severall of us att ye mitree, &c.

Rawstorne entry

8 at Preston & at prayers & at Mary Rigbyes [hostelry, location unknown] & at Miter, at the invitation of 2 Mr Springhams, where we supp’d and had plentie of wyne they pd


September 9

Bellingham entry

Ye 9th. Some raine. Ye curate preach’d. I walk’t to Enam [Avenham] with cousen T. Springham.

Rawstorne entry

9 at Preston & at prayers, heard the Vicar & Mr ffarrand [the curate]


September 10

Bellingham entry

Ye 10th. A wett day. I din’d att Penwortham [Priory], where we had a noble entertainment. There were Sr Tho Stanley and severall of this town, and Mrs Betty Banister, and ye widdow Tilsly with a sweet little boy, her sonne.

Rawstorne entry

i0 at Preston & went to Penwortha to dinner & Sr Tho: Standley & ‘s Lady & 2 Mr Pattens [Thomas and William] & theirs, Mr Bellingham & ‘s Coz: Springham & Mr lemon & Mr Winckley. & return’d ‘ith evening

Comment

Hewitson suggests Betty Bannister was the daughter of William Banister, mayor in 1663-3 and Widow Tilsly was the widow of Edward Tyldesley of Tyldesley and Myerscough. [1]

[1] Thomas Bellingham and Anthony Hewitson, Diary of Thomas Bellingham, an Officer under William III (Preston: Toulmin & Sons, 1908), 13, http://archive.org/details/diaryofthomasbel00belluoft.

September 11

Bellingham entry

Ye 11th. A fayr day. I was with my cousens [the Springhams] most of ye day. Here was ye Ld Brandon. Great interest making for Parliament men. In ye evening I was with ye mayor and my cousens att Cuttlers [hostelry, location unknown], &c.

Rawstorne entry

ii at Preston & at prayers & after supper at Cutlers wth Mr Mayor, Capt Bellingham, 2 Mr Springhams, Mr Lemon Dr. Leigh & Mr Will Patten for 6

Comment

Lord Brandon was the leader of the Whig faction in the county and, at this time, a great supporter of James II.


September 12

Bellingham entry

Ye 12th. Some raine in ye evening. This morning my cousens Springham went for Liverpoole. After dinner Coll and I walk’t towards Walton and kill’d a hare.

Rawstorne entry

i2 at Preston & at prayers & at Walton


September 13

Bellingham entry

Ye 13th. Pretty fayr. We went a coursing. Din’d att Camell’s [Campbell’s], and was att night att Rigby’s [hostelry, location unknown]. One Southern [not identified], a German, came to us, who talk’d much of Jamaica.

Rawstorne entry

 & i3 went to Campbells, dyned there, Capt. Bellingham, Dr. leigh, Mr. Lemon, Mr Chaddock Mr Hobson, Mr Houghton & Mr. fferrars came to us


September 14

Bellingham entry

Ye 14th. A wett day. I was with the mayor and one Hollynhurst, the taylour, of London, att ye mitre, and after I treated ye master, and Gregson, and Cippax, att Tho. Bostocks.

Rawstorne entry

i4 at Preston, & went to Penwortham dyned there & return’d my wife wth [mee]

Comment

The 1682 guild rolls have a Thomas Hollinhurst, tailor of London, and his son, also Thomas, in the list of in-burgesses. [1] Hewitson suggests ‘ye master’ was the town’s schoolmaster.

[1] Abram, Guild Rolls, 170.

September 15

Bellingham entry

Ye 15th. Some raine. I was with Captain Cross. After with Mr. Parker and ye mayor. Sup’t att cousen Patten’s [Thomas or William], and was sent for after by the mayor to waite on Sr Rich. Standish who will stand for burgess of Preston.

Rawstorne entry

i5 at Preston & at pryers, & at Mitre & at Cutlers [hostelry, location unknown] wth Mr Mayor & Capt Parker & after wth Mr Mayor & Sr. Rich Standish and others at Will AdKinsons

Comment

That Standish intended to ‘stand for burgess’ meant he was planning to contest the forthcoming parliamentary election. The Parker who is referred to here as both ‘Mr’ and Capt’ would most likely have been Thomas Parker of Browsholme. Hewitson suggests, without supplying evidence, that Captain Cross was ‘either Richard or Robert Cross, son of John Cross, yeoman, of Barton, near Preston’. Rawstorne records dining in Preston on 3 May 1689 with a Mr Cross of Darwen.


September 16

Bellingham entry

Ye 16th. A fayr day. We din’d att Mr. Hodgkinson‘s with Sr Thomas Stanley and others. Mr Crossan [Croston] preach’d in ye afternoon. Att evening we visited Cousen Patten [Thomas or William].

Rawstorne entry

i6 at Preston Church heard the Vicar and dyned wth Mr HodgKinson & heard Mr Croston ‘ith’ afternoon.


September 17

Bellingham entry

Ye 17th. A very fayr day. This morning there was a Councell held here about choosing burgesses for this place, and it was carry’d to elect Mr. Fleetwood and Sr Rich. Standish We walk’d in ye afternoon. Was treated att Susans [hostelry, location unknown], and att night we went to see Lauc: Forth, of Kendall [not identified].

Rawstorne entry

i7 at Preston, & went to Penwortha & Hutton, return’d & dyned there, was at boathouse wth my sister [Edward Fleetwood’s wife].


September 18

Bellingham entry

Ye 18th. Some light showers. I was with Sr Rich. Standish and others. We dranke hard att severall places. My cousen Wm Bellingham came to town and Tim Bankes and his wife.

Rawstorne entry

i8 at Preston & at prayers & after dinner at Will Atkinsons wth Sr. Rich: Standish went wth him to wait on Mr Mayor, & wth Mr Mayor & him to George Ratcliffs & Margret Wilding [hostelry, location unknown] & Tom Bostockes & Wills againe.


September 19

Bellingham entry

Ye 19th. Some rain towards night. I went with Coll. a setting [some form of field sport], but had no luck. This night I treated my Cousen [William] Bellingham, Bankes, and Lau. Forth [not identified] att ye miter.

Rawstorne entry

i9 at Preston & at prayers & afternoon a setting, & after at Tirlers [Mitre] wth Capt Bellingham & lawyer [Bellingham] & Mr Johnson & alderman ford [not identified] & Mr [Banckes]


September 20

Bellingham entry

Ye 20th. Some raine. I bowl’d with cousen W. B [William Bellingham]. Supt and lost money att cousen Patten’s [Thomas or William]. Came late home, etc.

Rawstorne entry

20 at Preston & at prayers & a setting

September 21

Bellingham entry

Ye 21th. Very much raine. This afternoon I was with Mr. Franks, and treated him att Rattcliffs with Mr. Winkly.

Rawstorne entry

2i went to Astley [Hall] & my wife & return’d


September 22

Bellingham entry

Ye 22th. A wett day. I was with Mr. G. Walmsley and others att Rigbys [hostelry, location unknown], and saw young mounsieur strike a woman, for which I struck him. I was after with W. B. [William Bellingham], Mr. Houghton, Mr. Ferrers, and others.

Rawstorne entry

22 at Preston & at prayers

Comment

Monsieurs was a hostelry frequented by the diarists. There appear to have been two Monsieurs, possibly father and son, for one is referred to as here as young Monsieur and Rawstorne, in his entry for 15 January 1689, refers to visiting the Monsieurs. A Monsieur Bryan is mentioned in Bellingham’s entry for 11 January 1689. There was a yard belonging to Monsieur at the bottom of Main Sprit Weind. The woman could have been a prostitute: see Coffee House entry.


September 23

Bellingham entry

Ye 23th. Much raine. We din’d att my cousen Patten’s [Thomas or William]. We went to hear a quaker [see next entry] preach, but were disappointed.

Rawstorne entry

23 at Preston Church heard Mr ffarrand 2, my wife went to Penwortham [Priory] to Keep my Sister [Edward Fleetwood‘s wife] Company


September 24

Bellingham entry

Ye 24th. A fayr day. We bowld. Mr. Rishton gave an account of the quaker. His name is Scansfield. He pretends to be a docter – a dangerous, seditious fellow, and not without some suspicion of being a Jesuit. All his relations are R. C. He sayd there was a plott discovered of ye Bpps Keeping confederacy with Holland for raysing disturbances in England. He pretended to have an interest att Court, and to have an interest in electing Burgesses for this corporation. He and Tompson the Regulator were much together. Att night ye Coll. treated us att the anchor, where W. B. [William Bellingham] and Mr. Houghton, and D. Langton were very merry.

Rawstorne entry

24 at Preston, & went to Walton [Hall] came home by Boat & to Dinner was after at Ancor wth Mr Ben Houghton 2 Mr Bellinghams Mr Johnson & Mr Will Patten

Comment

Tompson would have been one of the regulators, many of whom were Presbyterians, Quakers and Baptists, appointed by James II to ‘regulate’ corporations such as Preston by purging them of those resistant to the king’s reforms. They ‘made contacts with local informants, interviewed … officeholders and potential officeholders, and gathered relevant local political gossip’. [1]

[1] Steve Pincus, 1688: The First Modern Revolution (Yale University, 2009), 157.

September 25

Bellingham entry

Ye 25th. A very wett day. We had ye King’s declaration for the farther assuring the rights of ye Church of England and for quieting elections for Parliament men. I walk’d with Coll, D. Chaddock, and W. Lemman to Penwortham [to the Fleetwoods], were we din’d, and call’d att the boat house with T. Fleetwood [probably Thomas Fleetwood], and came home in good time.

Rawstorne entry

25 went to Penwortham was a Boat house & Mary Rigbye’s [hostelry, location unknown]

Comment

The declaration represented a part of the king’s desperate attempts to stave off revolution by reversing his deeply resented attempts to exert control of the instruments of government throughout the country and further the interests of his Catholic supporters. [1]

[1] Steve Pincus, 1688: The First Modern Revolution (Yale University, 2009), 213–14.

September 26

Bellingham entry

Ye 26th. Some raine. Here was a bull baiting. Ye bull broake loose and fell down Mr. Langton’s cellar stayres, and broake open the doore, and had like to have killd 2 children and ye drawyer of ye anchor. We were with Mr. Kihnyon [Kenyon] and Coll: [Rawstorne] att Rigby’s [hostelry, location unknown].

Rawstorne entry

26 at Preston & at prayers & at Ancor with Roger Kenion & othes Mr Hodgkinson [etc]

Comment

According to Hewitson the bull would have been secured to a ring mounted in a ‘large, round slightly raised stone’ at the south-west corner of the Market Place, the stone still being in place at the end of the 19th century. The bull was, at least on some occasions, supplied by the corporation, which decided in 1726 to end the supply, not to spare the bull but to avoid the unruly behaviour the event encouraged. It is not known whether the practice continued with another supplier of victims. [1] Mr Langton’s house would have been close by the bull ring if it was the one on Cheapside identified as Widow Langton’s on the 1685 plan of the town (see plan).

[1] Anthony Hewitson, History of Preston, reprint of 1883 edition (Wakefield: S. R. Publishers, 1969), 118, 301.

September 27

Bellingham entry

Ye 27th. A fayr day. I saw Mr. Chr Parker. I play’d with Cockshott at Mr. Chaddocks, and sup’t att Cousen Johnson’s.

Rawstorne entry

27 went with him [possibly Roger Kenyon, see previous entry] to Chorley to meet Mr Holt [not identified], Sr Rich: Standish [see above], Coz: ffarrington & Coz: Brooke & Mr Parker [possibly Christopher Parker or his son] Kts. o’th’ shire stayed all night

Comment

Hewitson suggests that when a Cockshott is mentioned in the diary it is either Jacob, the mayor’s bailiff in 1686-7 or Mr John Cockshutt. [1] It could be that the latter is meant when he is labelled ‘Mr’, but when he is referred to as simply Cockshott as here, it could be either. Rawstorne’s entry is somewhat ambiguous. Harrison suggests it might represent ‘a list of those who were prepared to stand for election to James’ prospective parliament for the county of Lancashire’. [2] ‘Knight of the shire’ denoted one of the two representatives of each county in the House of Commons, it did not mean they had been knighted: ‘Quite early … it became clear that not all the representatives of the shires would be of knightly rank. So much so that the designation ‘knight of the shire’ virtually became a technical term. Evidently, it was not always easy for a county court to find two knights proper, or even one, available and ready to serve …’.[3] Another possible reading of this entry is that it records a gathering of the county’s Tory gentry to discuss the proposed election and the selection of the county’s Tory candidates.

[1] Thomas Bellingham and Anthony Hewitson, Diary of Thomas Bellingham, an Officer under William III (Preston: Toulmin & Sons, 1908), 17, http://archive.org/details/diaryofthomasbel00belluoft.
[2] Richard D. Harrison, ‘The Rawstorne Diary, 1687-89’ (typescript, nd), 98, Search Room, Lancashire Archives.
[3] ‘VI. Electoral Practice | History of Parliament Online’, accessed 25 January 2017, http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/survey/vi-electoral-practice.

September 28

Bellingham entry

Ye 28th. A fayr day. We had ye newes of ye Dutch designing to invade England with a great force of horse and foot and 60 sayle of ships to come into ye north. I sup’t att cousen Pattens [Thomas or William].

Rawstorne entry

28 came back to Preston, was at Mitre & at Cutlers [hostelry, location unknown] wth Mr Mayor & Sr. Rich: [Standish, see above] Coz: ffarrington, Coz: Brooke [not identified] & others.

Comment

Bellingham’s entry is the first mention in the diaries of William of Orange’s plans. It is interesting for two reasons: firstly, by labelling the proposed action an invasion it seems that the local Tories did not unambiguously view William as entering England by invitation and, secondly, it appears to anticipate an invasion in the north of England.


September 29

Bellingham entry

Ye 29th. A very wet afternoon. I din’d wth ye Mayor, Sr Rich. Standish [see above], Mr. Fleetwood, etc., att the Mitre, where Sr Rich, treated, and after at ye Anchor.

Rawstorne entry

29 at Preston, dyned at Mitre & others & was after at Edw: Cravens at Roger Haydock & at Ancor.


September 30

Bellingham entry

Ye 30th. Some raine. Mr. Gregory preach’d in ye afternoone.

Rawstorne entry

30 Went to Penwortham Church heard Mr. ffarrand twice, & return’d