December 1688

December 1

Bellingham entry

Dec. ye 1st. A fayr day, but cold. My paine in ye shoulder continues, for which I sweat; and att evening I treated cousens Johnson and Patten [Thomas or William] wth oysters and wine, and playd att Cards pretty late.

Rawstorne entry

i at Preston & at prayers & at Hen: Wildings [hostelry, location unknown] wth my bro: ffleetwood Sr. Will Pennington & others for 6


December 2

Bellingham entry

Ye 2nd. A dry, cold day. I was not att church in ye morning, but heard yt ye vicar preach’d a very factious sermon. Ye curate made a good serm: in ye afternoon.

Rawstorne entry

2 at Preston Church heard the Vicar & dyned at Mr. Pattens [Thomas or William] my wife & 3 sonees, & heard Mr ffarrand after


December 3

Bellingham entry

Ye 3d. A dry, cold day. I tooke Physick for my paine, which continues very violent. In ye evening my cousens Johnson and Patten [Thomas and/or William] came, and sate wth me and play’d cards till it was late.

Rawstorne entry

3 went to Penwortham [Priory] & returned


December 4

Bellingham entry

Ye 4th. A cold, dry day. We had an account of Bristoll Plymouth, Hull, Newcastle, Carlisle, and severall other places surrendred for ye P of O [Prince of Orange]. Proclamations for a Parliament to sitt ye 15th of January. I wrote severall letters for Ireland. Was wth ye Rigbys. Ye Capt Challenged Capt Brathwait who recanted.

Rawstorne entry

4 at Preston & at prayers

Comment

The Rigby family was represented in Preston at this time by Alexander Rigby and his brother, Edward. One of the Rigbys was a captain in the militia, as was the Capt Braithwaite he challenged, who Hewitson names as Thomas Braithwaite, but gives no source. [1] He was probably the ‘cousin Braithwaite’ who the Fleming manuscripts record being ‘very sick’ while stationed with his company in Preston in November 1688. [2]

[1] Thomas Bellingham and Anthony Hewitson, Diary of Thomas Bellingham, an Officer under William III (Preston: Toulmin & Sons, 1908), 33, http://archive.org/details/diaryofthomasbel00belluoft.
[2] Historical Manuscripts Commission (Twelth Report, Appendix, Part VII) The Manuscripts of S. H. Le Fleming Esq, of Rydal Hall (Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1890), 222.

December 5

Bellingham entry

Ye 5th. A cold, dry day. In ye afternoon I walk’d wth Collonel [Rawstorne] to Penwortham [Priory]. Was wth Mr. Greenfeild [Christopher or Thomas] and others att Rigbys [hostelry, location unknown]. Supt at Cousen Pattens [Thomas or William], and playd att cards.

Rawstorne entry

5 at Preston & at prayers


December 6

Bellingham entry

Ye 6th. A frost. I walk’d wth Mr. Chaddock and Franks to the Marsh. Was wth Mr. Kennyon att Coopers [hostelry, location unknown], and after wth Mr. Farrington ye parson [not identified] att Rigby’s  [hostelry, location unknown] .

Rawstorne entry

6 at Preston & at prayers & at fullwood


December 7

Bellingham entry

Ye 7th. A fayr frost. We had an account of an address from ye navy, and that our fleet and ye Dutch lay very freindly together att Portsmouth. I was att evening wth Mr. Mayor and severall others att Rigbys [hostelry, location unknown].

Rawstorne entry

7 went to Penwortham, dyned there went after to Hutton to Richard fforeses [transcriber note:Forrest], ’twas the rent day & return’d


December 8

Bellingham entry

Ye 8th. A frost. I was wth Mr. Fleetwood and parted early. Dr. Lee tould ye story of ye lightning killing 2 men in ye middle of 12 or 13, and took such serpentine motions, and went out of ye top of ye house.

Rawstorne entry

8 at Preston & at prayers & a Mr. James Cowpers & at Mary Rigbyes [hostelries, location unknown] wth Bro: fleetwood & Mr Mayore Capt Bellingham Mr Parker [of Bradkirk or Browsholme] & others


December 9

Bellingham entry

Ye 9th. A fayr day. I walk’d to Penwortham, and heard Mr. Gregory, and din’d there, and was att Ratcliffe’s, wth Mr. Greenfeild [Christopher or Thomas] and others, where ye P: O. De [Prince of Orange’s Declaration] was read, etc.

Rawstorne entry

9 at preston Church heard the Vicar & Mr Bushell.

Comment

In his declaration William claimed to be bringing his forces to England to defend the Protestant religion, to secure a free Parliament and to determine the legitimacy of the Prince of Wales in the light of the rumours surrounding the birth  The public reading of the declaration could be seen as an act of disloyalty to James II and indicate growing support for William. The only Bushell likely to have been preaching at the parish church at this time would be William Bushell, the son of the former vicar of Preston, Seth Bushell.


December 10

Bellingham entry

Ye 10th. A fayr day. I sweat. Ye soldiers went to Physick [Fishwick] chappell and tooke downe ye Bell, &c.

Rawstorne entry

i0 went to Rood. This day the King Left his Kingdom & went for France

Comment

Viscount Molyneux had leased Fishwick Hall to the Benedictines when James II relaxed the restrictions on Catholics. The monks established a chapel there which was clearly resented by local Protestants, hence the removal of the bell. More information on the chapel can be found in the biography of Richard Jackson. Rawstorne’s record of the king’s first attempt to flee the country cannot be contemporaneous since the attempt was not begun until the early hours of the 11th. Harrison suggests it must be a later addition. [1]

[1] Richard D. Harrison, ‘The Rawstorne Diary, 1687-89’ (typescript, nd), 116, Search Room, Lancashire Archives.

December 11

Bellingham entry

Ye 11th. A wett day. I went to ye boat house, to see a match att shooting between one Brown of Yorkshire and Billington of Lancashire. They shott but halfe of a sett. I sup’t att Cousen Patten’s [Thomas or William]. We had account of severall vessells arriv’d att Liverpoole, yesterday, wth multitudes of English who fled out of Ireland for fear of a massacre.

Rawstorne entry

ii at Rood


December 12

Bellingham entry

Ye 12th. A moyst day. We heard the boyes declaime att school. I went to see the shooting att boat house. Was wth Dr. Lee, Mr. Chaddock, and others att George Rattliffes. Tooke a long farewell [?]. B [?] was tould ye account of ye Lord of Meath’s going to Tirconnell and desiring armes for theyr protection, but was refus’d and threatned and charg’d wth Rebellion.

Rawstorne entry

i2 went to Haslingden on about the [transcriber note: cuntries] busines as a Deputy Leuietent: allnight at Sonne Bradshaws [?]

Comment

Tyrconnel commanded James II’s forces in Ireland, the Lord of Meath would have been Edward Brabazon, the Earl of Meath, who commanded a regiment at the battle of the Boyne. Meath wanted protection for Protestants from the Catholics, whose attacks had been encouraged by Tyrconnel. In the face of such Catholic hostility Protestants where fleeing from Ireland, as Bellingham records in his previous entry and his next.


December 13

Bellingham entry

Ye 13th. A very wett day. I rode to Camells to see ye ship wch came from Holland. Ye master tould me he was 3 weekes since att Ireland, and ye Custome house officer assur’d him there were armes lately come over for 15,000 men. He saw 2 dutch ships off Pyle of fother [probably Peel Island at Walney]. Dean Ward came from Liverpoole, and confirms the account of 500 being come from Ireland for fear of a massacre, thatt Ld of Meath and Granard went to Tirconnell who gave them no satisfaction, and that he believ’d Ld Meath was come over to the P of O [Prince of Orange], and yt ye D of Orm [Duke of Ormond] was gone into Ireland wth a considerable force.

Rawstorne entry

i3 went to Bury about same busine all night at Coz: Rich Lomax [not identified] house

Comment

Bellingham’s entry testifies to the growing polarisation of support for William and for James, with Ireland becoming the rallying point for Catholic supporters of James.


December 14

Bellingham entry

Ye 14th. A moyst day. We had an acct of ye K, Q, and P [king, queen and prince] being withdrawn towards Ireland. I was wth Sr. Rich. Standish, major Farrington, &c.

Rawstorne entry

i4 went thence to Chorley and Astley

Comment

The queen and the Prince of Wales had escaped to France. The king had been captured when he attempted to follow them.


December 15

Bellingham entry

Ye 15th. A fayr day. We had an account by express this morning, from Wiggan, that 8,000 Scotch and Irish were ravaging the Kingdom, yt they massacred in Breimingham, burnt Stafford, and were moving towards Newcastle, upon which this town was making all speedy preparation and sent severall expresses. I was desir’d to take care of the horse, wch I did, and gott severall who were very ready but wanted arms. We searcht severall suspected houses, but found very little. We return’d about 4 a clock, mett ye mayor, and I entred [?]. About 50 gave theyr names to serve in ye horse.

Rawstorne entry

i5 went to Preston, received my Lds [Derby] Order to raise our Regmt. for [8] days and march to Manchester. Black Saturday [?] X

Comment

Rumours of atrocities were clearly circulating widely, leading locally to the calling out of a horse troop under the command of Bellingham and the summoning of Rawstorne’s regiment to Manchester. The suspect houses would be those of Catholics.


December 16

Bellingham entry

Ye 16th. A fayr day. I had above 60 who rode under my command. I march’d to ye mill hill [location uncertain], where I exercized them, and brought them into ye town, where they gave 2 very good volleys. I treated ym. Mr. Clarett [not identified] this day brought an account of the K[ing] being stoppt att Feversham, of the Chancellor and others being taken. A letter came from my Ld Derby confirming the newes of the Irish and Scotch. Mr. Rishton came from Warrington. I was wth Captaine Bold.

Rawstorne entry

i6 went to Manchester, lodged at Mr Hollands house the Bulls head Sunday

Comment

James II was detained at Faversham as he attempted to flee his kingdom; the Chancellor was the former Judge Jeffreys.


December 17

Bellingham entry

Ye 17th. A wett day. I drew out ye Volunteers, who appear’d better appointed than yesterday. We exercised on ye marsh, and they performed admirably. We marcht in a full body through the town, gave a volley, and dismiss’d. We had 2 expresses, one from ye Lord Danby, from York, wh brought an account yt he was advanceing wth 2 Regiments of foot, 8 troop of horse, and one of grenadiers; ye other from Coll Rawstorne, that the Irish were dispers’d about [? Shrew]sbury, and had layd down theyr arms. Sr Tho Clifton was taken and brother.

Rawstorne entry

i7 at Manchester & at prayers

Comment

Bellingham’s report of the detention of Sir Thomas Clifton and his brother, and the removal of the chapel bell at the Fishwick chapel on 10 December, indicates the hostility becoming openly shown to local Catholics. Sir Thomas had been one of Viscount Molyneux‘s deputy lieutenants when the latter replaced the Earl of Derby as lord lieutenant of Lancashire as part of the attempt by James II to gain control of local government.. However, Bellingham might have been mistaken in his report (see Sir Thomas Clifton biography).


December 18

Bellingham entry

Ye 18th. A wett day. I drew out ye troop, but ye raine drove us in againe. We had a report of ye King’s death, but, God be prays’d, it prov’d false. The newes sayes that Tirconnell was seiz’d, together wth ye castle of Dublin, by Lords Granard, Meath, Mou[nt]joy, and Inchequin. I was wth parte of ye troop, who treated me att ye anchor, and after wth Coll Rigby, Capt Bold, &c.

Rawstorne entry

i8 at Manchester, and at prayers, marchd after toth’ field wth our regiemt & there was Judge Mosely wth’s troop and one foot companie led Olliver Edge, an old fanatique.

Comment

Bellingham’s reaction to the report of the king’s death testifies to his continuing loyalty and suggests he was persuaded by William of Orange’s fiction that he was coming to England merely to set the state in order and not to seize the crown. The news from Ireland was false. Harrison notes that ‘fanatique’ was the pejorative term Cavaliers used for radical Dissenters. [1]

[1] Richard D. Harrison, ‘The Rawstorne Diary, 1687-89’ (typescript, nd), 116, Search Room, Lancashire Archives.

December 19

Bellingham entry

Ye 19th. A frost. Ye militia Companyes and troop drew out. I saw them exercise very ill. I was after wth ye mayor, Capt Bold, and others att ye Dogg, and after att ye Mitre. Ye mayor receiv’d a fresh account from Lancaster, which came from Kendall, that ye Scotch and Irish were gone Yorkshire road and had burnt Halifax; but it is not believ’d. Ye mayor shewed me ye letter at ten at night.

Rawstorne entry

i9 at Manchester & at prayers


December 20

Bellingham entry

Ye 20th. A great frost. I walk’d wth Dr Lee, Mr. Lemman, and Mr Langton to Penwortham [Priory], where we were nobly entertain’d. I won some money. Capt Bold came after dinner and was much in drinke. Att night I was wth the mayor, att [? had] ale, &c.

Rawstorne entry

20 at Manchester dyned wth Mr Lightboune


December 21

Bellingham entry

Ye 21th. A hard frost. Our newes yt ye K [ing] had againe retir’d to Rochester, yt P [Prince of Orange] come to St. James. I wrote severall letters to Ireland, and was att Mr. Rigbys [with] Capt Bold, Mr. Fleetwood, and others.

Rawstorne entry

2i at Manchester, Dyned there again with my Lord, – hurt my self wth a fall ‘ith’ Guard house

Comment

James II was being held at Rochester and the Dutch had taken possession of London.


December 22

Bellingham entry

Ye 22nd. A hard frost. Tom White [not identified, possibly Bellingham’s agent in Ireland] came here. I gott him a pass from the mayor, gave him £5, and sent him towards Kirkham. I was wth Mr. Fleetwood, Mr. Sherburn of Stanihurst [Stonyhurst], and others, att ye mitre, and after wth Kellett att ye White bull.

Rawstorne entry

22 at Manchester dyned at my lodging

Comment

The Mr Sherburn would have been Richard Sherburn, who was living at Stonyhurst at this time.


December 23

Bellingham entry

Ye 23th. A great frost. We had little newes, but that there would be great alterations in Ireland, and its doubted whether ye King will leave ye Kingdome. We walk’d in ye afternoon, and miss’d a railing sermon wch ye Vicar Preached against ye ceremonyes of ye Church.

Rawstorne entry

23 at Manchester & as aforesaid

Comment

Thomas Birch, the Whig vicar, was frequently at odds with the Tory members of his congregation, perhaps here he was demonstrating Calvinist sympathies..


December 24

Bellingham entry

Ye 24th. A great frost. Ribble was frozen over. Mr. Gregson and I went a gunning, but gott little, only some few small birds. Capt Bold went hence. We din’d att Dr Lees. Was wth Capt Clayton and his sonne att Mittons. He brought an Irish proclamation [?] wth him, which was sent to Liverpoole, by order of Tirconnell, to ye mayor.

Rawstorne entry

24 at Mancchester dyned at my lodgig


December 25

Bellingham entry

Ye 25th. A gentle thaw. Little newes. Ye K:[ing] continues still att Rochester. Debates about a free Parliament. Tirconnell refuses to surrender Ireland. I was wth Sr Tho Stanly and much company at Serjeant Wall’s.

Rawstorne entry

25 at Manchester Church, heard the Warden Mr Roe, dyned at my lodging was a Evening prayers.

Comment

James II was shortly to escape his loose confinement at Rochester and make his way to France. The free Parliament had been promised by William of Orange as one of the grounds for his invasion. Tyrconnel was gathering the forces that William would confront at the battle of the Boyne. There were a great number of Walls in Preston at this time.


December 26

Bellingham entry

Ye 26th. A hard frost. We were nobly entertained att ye mayors. Went after to one of ye Serjeants; so to Mittons; and from thence to play att ye Coffee house, where we won 30.

Rawstorne entry

26 at mancheste & at prayers went toth’ filed wth our regiemt & came of to dinner, ’twas exceeding cold went after to vicit Mrs Byrom [wif.] in Salford, was after at Ensigne Gees’s [people not identified]


December 27

Bellingham entry

Ye 27th. A hard frost. Dr Lee went from hence to Fullwood under halfe an houre for a wager. I din’d wth much company att Mr. Rigby’s; but a very ill dinner. After waited on ye Mayor; to the other Serjeants [house]; from thence to Ratcliffe’s; and so to play, to ye Coffee house, where I lost 20, and Mr. Greenfeild [Christopher or Thomas] was halfes and mett a disappointment [?].

Rawstorne entry

27 Dismissed the souldiers & went to Penwortham [Priory], called at Astley [Hall].


December 28

Bellingham entry

Ye 28th. A hard frost. We had an account of ye King’s being gone towards France. I sent T. White away wth some letters. I was wth Mr. Mayor and Chr Parker att Cravens, and after sup’t att Cousen Johnson’s.

Rawstorne entry

28 at Penwortham [Priory], & ‘ith’ eveneing at Town end [Penwortham or Hutton?] wth my brother & Gid Holand [not identified] and others ’till eleven.

Comment

James II fled England on 23 December, the news seems late arriving at Preston. T.[om] White appears to have been Bellingham’s agent in Ireland (see 22 December entry above and 1 January 1689 diary entry).


December 29

Bellingham entry

Ye 29th. A frost. Mr. Fleetwood came hither, and seemes unwilling to stand for Parliament man. I was wth him att ye Dogg. Mr. Hodgkinson, Mrs Langton [probably wife of Richard Langton], and her sister sup’t wth us.

Rawstorne entry

29 at Penwortham [Priory]


December 30

Bellingham entry

Ye 30th. A hard frost. I walk’t after dinner to Penwortham [Priory], over ye ice, wth Mr. Franks, and saw severall people sliding and walking over Ribble.

Rawstorne entry

30 at Penwortham Church heard Mr Gregory


December 31

Bellingham entry

Ye 31th. A hard frost. Cousen Johnson, Bryan, and I walk’t 8 miles a fowling, and mett nothing. We sup’t att Cousen Patten’s [Thomas or William], and came late home. I was invited to Mr. Franks, but it was after dinner.

Rawstorne entry

3i at Penwortham [Priory]